All who have sinned without knowledge of the Law will die without reference to the Law; and all who have sinned knowing the Law shall be judged according to the Law. [Huh? What are you trying to say?] It is not familiarity with the Law that justifies man in the sight of God, but obedience to it. —Romans 2:12-13
This reminds me of Leviticus 5:17 that says, “If a person sins and does what is forbidden in any of the Lord’s commands, even though he does not know it, he is guilty and will be held responsible.” How can he say that? Well, God gave Adam a conscience that was uncorrupted before he committed treason. After Adam’s treason, his conscience (and the rest of humanity’s conscience) became more and more depraved and corrupted, but not totally erased.
Conscience serves as a witness to truth. Proverbs 20:27 states that “the Lord’s searchlight penetrates the human spirit, exposing every hidden motive,” however, moral choice tells whether it has been obeyed. Joshua instructed the people of Israel, “If you decide that it’s a bad thing to worship God, then choose a god you’d rather serve—and do it today. Choose one of the gods your ancestors worshiped from the country beyond The River, or one of the gods of the Amorites, on whose land you are now living. As for me and my family, we will worship God.”
A man’s own human spirit accuses him of sin and it will condemn him when the books are opened. Every mouth will be silenced and God’s judgments will be seen to be true and just. The believer who is walking in the Spirit will repent of and confess any known sin immediately. This is the way to have a blameless conscience. Your conscience—your inner spirit—is educated, transformed—renewed by faith through the atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ and continual refreshing of his Word.
If interested, you can download the entire study of The Letter to Christians at Rome